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git rebase 批量合并 commits

git rebase 是一个经常用以美化分支线的指令,近来听说了一个 squash 的指令可以用来合并多个 commits,研究后更是觉得 rebase 的神奇了,本文做一个记录。

现在有以下 commits

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* fc24432 - (HEAD -> master) third commit (2 seconds ago) <cnzsb>
* 508a1a0 - second commit (81 seconds ago) <cnzsb>
* 559f659 - first commit (2 minutes ago) <cnzsb>
* 40a59bc - initial commit (5 minutes ago) <cnzsb>

现在我们把最新提交的 3 次 commit 合并为一次修改则可以使用 git rebase -i HEAD~3 指令(更多参数含义参见 git rebase 文档)。

其中 pick 是挑选出的基准 commit,对需要合并的 commit 使用 squashs 则会保存该 commitcommit message 并合并在其前一个 commit 上,最终自己可以更新 commit message 信息;也可以使用 fixupf 丢弃 commit message 并合并,这样最终的 commit message 会是 pick 的那条信息。

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pick 559f659 first commit
s 508a1a0 second commit
s fc24432 third commit
# Rebase 40a59bc..fc24432 onto 40a59bc (3 commands)
#
# Commands:
# p, pick = use commit
# r, reword = use commit, but edit the commit message
# e, edit = use commit, but stop for amending
# s, squash = use commit, but meld into previous commit
# f, fixup = like "squash", but discard this commit's log message
# x, exec = run command (the rest of the line) using shell
# d, drop = remove commit
#
# These lines can be re-ordered; they are executed from top to bottom.
#
# If you remove a line here THAT COMMIT WILL BE LOST.
#
# However, if you remove everything, the rebase will be aborted.
#
# Note that empty commits are commented out

这里使用 squash,得到下面的信息。

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# This is a combination of 3 commits.
# This is the 1st commit message:
first commit
# This is the commit message #2:
second commit
# This is the commit message #3:
third commit
# Please enter the commit message for your changes. Lines starting
# with '#' will be ignored, and an empty message aborts the commit.
#
# Date: Thu May 4 14:36:40 2017 +0800
#
# interactive rebase in progress; onto 40a59bc
# Last commands done (3 commands done):
# s 508a1a0 second commit
# s fc24432 third commit
# No commands remaining.
# You are currently editing a commit while rebasing branch 'master' on '40a59bc'.
#
# Changes to be committed:
# new file: commits.txt
#

可以看到每个对应的 commit message,我们这里删掉所有不需要的 commit message,并且保存为 “create commits.txt and update cotents”,最后可以看到成功信息。

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[detached HEAD b073a14] create commits.txt and update cotents
Date: Thu May 4 14:36:40 2017 +0800
1 file changed, 3 insertions(+)
create mode 100644 commits.txt
Successfully rebased and updated refs/heads/master.

新的 commits

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* b073a14 - (HEAD -> master) create commits.txt and update cotents (11 minutes ago) <cnzsb>
* 40a59bc - initial commit (65 minutes ago) <cnzsb>